Promoting the use of R in the NHS

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(This article was first published on S+/R – Yet Another Blog in Statistical Computing, and kindly contributed to R-bloggers)

In the previous post (, it is shown how to identify the optimal hyper-parameter in a General Regression Neural Network by using the Sobol sequence and the uniform random generator respectively through the N-fold cross validation. While the Sobol sequence yields a slightly better performance, outcomes from both approaches are very similar, as shown below based upon five trials with 20 samples in each. Both approaches can be generalized from one-dimensional to multi-dimensional domains, e.g. boosting or deep learning.


Other than the random search, another way to locate the optimal hyper-parameter is applying general optimization routines, As shown in the demonstration below, we first need to define an objective function, e.g. grnn.optim(), to maximize the Cross-Validation R^2. In addition, depending on the optimization algorithm, upper and lower bounds of the parameter to be optimized should also be provided. Three optimization algorithms are employed in the example, including unconstrained non-linear optimization, particle swarm optimization, and Nelder–Mead simplex optimization, with all showing comparable outcomes to ones achieved by the random search.

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